The GP medical training website for everyone,
not just Bradford. Est. 2002

Bradford VTS Online Resources:

Clinical Knowledge

ENT (Ears, Nose & Throat)

Important features in the history

  • If you would like to have a go at adding some “top tips” to this page for this specialty (and have your name displayed proudly with bradfordvts),  please email me –

Important features in the Examination

Vertigo: The HINTS examination

The HINTS exam- this exam helps to differentiate between peripheral and central cause of vertigo, such as vestibular neuritis vs stroke.   It should be done on patients who present within hours or days of on going vertigo and nystagmus.

  • Reassuring HINTS exam is – Unidirectional nystagmus, No vertical skew, and abnormal head impulse test. likely vestibular neuritis.
  • Worrying HINTS test is – Bidirectional or vertical nystagmus, vertical skew or normal head impulse test. Need imaging to rule out posterior or cerebellar stroke.

Red Flags

Other Top Tips

Please leave a comment if you have a tip, spot an error, spot something missing or have a suggestion for a web resource. And of course, if you have developed a resource of your own, please email it to me to share with others.

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FROM 1st July 2022 • DON’T MISS OUT!


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